|Systemic Inclusion Criteria||Local Inclusion Criteria|
|Absence of relevant medical conditions: Medical history of good health (particularly ruling out bone disease, uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes, unstable or life-threatening conditions, or requiring antibiotic prophylaxis were excluded).||
Presence of at least one intrabony defect in patient with periodontal disease.
Excessive gingival display or gingival margin asymmetries required a surgical correction in periodontally-healthy patients
|Smoking status: Non-smokers and without a story of alcohol abuse.||Good oral hygiene: full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) ≤20 %|
|Compliance: only patients showing high levels of compliance (as assessed during the cause-related phase of therapy) were selected.||Low level of residual infection: full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS) ≤20 %.|
|Pregnancy or lactation and underage were excluded.||Endodontic status: Experimental teeth had to be vital or properly treated with root canal therapy.|