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Table 2 Metabolomic studies in the case of FSGS, MGN and IgAN

From: Chronic kidney disease: a review of proteomic and metabolomic approaches to membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy biomarkers

CKD TypeSample TypeMethodPutative BiomarkersRef.
MGNUrineGC-MSdopamine, fumarate, carnosine, nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide, pyridoxal, deoxyguanosine triphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, L-citrulline, nico¬tinamide, deoxyuridine, phenylalanine, tryptamine, succinate(Taherkhani et al., 2018)
UrineGC-MS 1H-NMRα-hydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, 5α-cholestanone, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid lactone, nicotinamide, epicoprostanol, palmitic acid(Taherkhani et al., 2019)
Urine, serumGC/MSUrine: cis-Aconitic acid, Lactose, Erythritol, Xylitol, Galactitol, Inositol, Glyceric acid, 2,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid, Threonic acid, 2-Deoxyribonic acid, 2-Ketogluconic acid, Glutaric acid, 3-Methylglutaric acid, Adipic acid, 2-Hydroxyglutaric acid, Suberic acid, 3-Hydroxysebacic acid, Mandelic acid, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, Vanillic acid, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-Hydroxyphenyllactic acid, Vanillactic acid, Cytosine, Quinolinic acid, Cholesterol
Serum: m-Cresol, 2-Keto-3-methylvaleric acid, L-Asparagine, L-Serine, L-Threonine, Pyroglutamic acid, Citric acid, Glucose, Cholesterol
(Gao et al., 2012)
IgANUrineLC-MALDI-TOF/MS, proteins arrays, immunomagnetic isolation8-hydroxy guanosine, dodecanal, leukotriene C4(Neprasova et al., 2016)
SerumNOESYPR and TOCSY 1H-NMRphenylalanine, lactate, myo-Inositol, L6 lipids, L5 lipids and L3 lipids as well as lower levels of α- and β-glucose, valine, phosphocholine, tyrosine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glycerolphosphocholine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, acetate, 1-methylhistidine and 3-hydroxybutyrate(Sui et al., 2012)
FSGSUrineCPMG 1H-NMRcitrulline, proline, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, valine, alphaketoisovaleric acid, isobutyrate, histidine, D-Palmitylcarnitine, N-methylnicotinamide(S. Kalantari et al., 2016)
UrineCPMG 1H-NMRvaline, hippurate, pyruvate, isoleucine, citrate, phenylacetylglycine, tyrosine, β-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methylhistidine, di- methylamine, tri-methyamine(Hao et al., 2013)
  1. MGN Membranous glomerulonephritis, IgAN Immunoglobulin A nephropathy, FSGS Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, MCD Minimal change disease