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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics of study participants

From: The association of plasma cystatin C proteoforms with diabetic chronic kidney disease

Characteristic N1/N2/N3 Control DM CKD p-value
Age, years 33/34/44 43.82 (14.93) 51.97 (11.77) 61.09 (11.79) <0.001a,b
Sex 33/34/44   0.64   
Male 15 (45.45 %) 17 (50 %) 25 (56.82)  
Female 12 (70.59) 17 (50 %) 19 (43.18)  
Race 33/34/44   0.25
Caucasians 24 (72.73 %) 19 (55.88 %) 25 (56.82 %)  
Hispanics 8 (24.24 %) 15 (44.12 %) 16 (36.36 %)  
Others 1 (3.03 %) 0 (0 %) 3 (6.82 %)  
Body mass index, kg/m2 33/34/40 24.37 (3.25) 36.33 (10.26) 34.08 (8.28) <0.001c
Waist circumference, cm 32/33/35 86.94 (12.07) 116.52 (20.82) 115.57 (18.95) <0.001c
Glucose, mg/dL 33/34/37 98 (88, 107) 144 (123, 182) 142 (114, 202) <0.001c
Hemoglobin A1C, % 33/31/40 5.2 (4.9, 5.4) 7.5 (6.7, 9.7) 7.6 (6.4, 9.3) <0.001c
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 33/34/41 118.09 (31.93) 111.09 (39.15) 101.95 (36.98) 0.16
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 33/34/41 54.97 (16.41) 46.41 (11.60) 43.95 (13.29) <0.01c
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 33/34/41 198.12 (41.58) 191.15 (55.56) 182.15 (43.62) 0.35
Triglycerides, mg/dL 33/34/41 128 (96, 182) 162 (124, 258) 166 (135,268) 0.02d
Fasting Insulin, IU 32/23/25 9.53 (7.68) 17.74 (11.32) 16.76 (13.02) 0.01c
Urine Microalbumin, mg/mg creatinine 33/33/38 5 (5, 9) 11 (5, 27) 25 (9, 174) <0.001c
CRP, mg/dL 16/24/33 1.24 (0.35, 3.77) 6.80 (2.50, 12.43) 7.29 (3.91, 7.29) <0.001c
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 33/34/44 0.6 (0.6, 0.8) 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) 1.25 (1.00, 1.90) <0.001a
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 33/34/44 120.66 (24.09) 111.13 (25.90) 54.74 (24.97) <0.001a
  1. Mean (SD) or median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) shown for continuous variables (normally distributed or non-normally distributed, respectively). Frequency (percentage) shown for categorical variables. Statistical significance defined with a p < 0.05. IU: International Unit. eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Group categorization: control group defined as non-diabetic patients with eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, DM group defined as diabetic patients with eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and CKD group defined as diabetic patients with eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2
  3. N1 = Control
  4. N2 = DM
  5. N3 = CKD
  6. aCKD statistically different than DM and control
  7. bDM statistically different than control
  8. cControl statistically different than DM and CKD
  9. dControl statistically different than CKD